In this study HMB was supplemented in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design in 58 highly trained males. To qualify the subjects had to have a minimum of 5 years training and a minimum of 4 sessions weekly in their sport discipline. The authors concluded that HMB had advantageous changes in increasing fat free mass and reducing fat mass, while also improving indicators of aerobic metabolism such as VO2max, time to ventilatory threshold and power at ventilator threshold.
Sixteen elite rowers were supplemented with HMB for 12 weeks in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. VO2max increased with HMB supplementation as well as time to ventilatory threshold, threshold load, and threshold heart rate. The researchers concluded that supplementing with HMB was advantageous for endurance athletes in increasing aerobic capacity and power.
In this placebo-controlled study in interval-training college students, HMB supplementation was shown to significantly increase maximal oxygen consumption and respiratory compensation point.
This double-blind switchback study with HMB, leucine, and placebo showed that HMB supplementation increased the cyclists endurance as measured by VO2 peak and lactate threshold.
This double-blind randomized study in male and female runners showed that HMB reduced muscle damage after a prolonged run. Decreasing the amount of muscle damage caused by running may decrease the DOMS soreness many long-distance runners experience.